As we all know, the cnc machining center is developed from the basic CNC milling machine. It inherits all the functional characteristics and advantages of the CNC milling machine. Not only the structure is the same, but the processing technology is also very similar.
Not only that, the machining center also concentrates the processing functions and processing procedures of various other machine tools, and can complete multi-process processing on the workpiece clamping at one time, such as milling, boring, drilling, tapping, tapping and other multiple processes.
How are machining centers classified? What are the classification methods?
CNC machining centers can be classified in the following 6 ways.
1. Classification according to the relative position of the spindle and the table
Machining centers can be divided into four categories according to the relative position of the spindle and the worktable, vertical & horizontal machining centers, gantry & composite machining centers. Among them, the spindle is one of the core components of the machine tool, and it is the axis that rotates during the machining of the part, which transmits the cutting force and drives the tool for machining. Spindle is usually composed of motor, bearing, spindle box, etc. Its speed and power directly affect the precision and efficiency of workpiece processing. Under normal circumstances, the relative positional relationship between the worktable and the spindle determines the parameters such as the entry angle and contact depth of the spindle and the tool during part processing, which directly affects the efficiency and quality of processing.
The main shaft is located in the center of the machine tool, while the table is located under the main shaft, and can move freely on the XYZ three-axis plane of the machine tool to realize various processing methods. Of course, there are also some special machine tools, the relative position of the table and the spindle is not up and down, but left and right or front and back.
2. Classify according to the number of control axes
Machining centers can be divided into many categories according to the number of control axes, such as three-axis, four-axis, five-axis, six-axis machining centers, etc., and even other multi-axis machining centers.
Three-axis machining center: 3-axis CNC machining generally refers to three axes that move linearly in different directions, such as up and down, front and back, and left and right. Therefore, the three-axis can only process one surface at a time, which is suitable for processing some disc parts. This is a limitation for many parts that need to process holes or grooves on multiple surfaces;
Four-axis machining center: 4-axis CNC machining is to add a rotation axis to the 3-axis, generally 360° rotation in the horizontal plane. But it cannot rotate at high speed, so it is suitable for processing some box parts. Most 4-axis CNC machines also allow the workpiece to rotate, which is known as the b-axis, allowing the machine to function as both a mill and a lathe. If you need to drill holes in the side of a part or on the curved surface of a cylinder, 4-axis CNC machining is the answer. It greatly speeds up the machining process and has high machining accuracy.
Five-axis machining center: 5-axis CNC machining is one more rotation axis above the 4-axis, generally 360° rotation on the vertical surface, and the five-axis can already be fully processed, and one-time clamping can be realized, which can reduce clamping costs and reduce The product is scratched and bruised. Due to the high versatility of 5-axis CNC machining, it can be used to manufacture complex precision parts. Such as medical components of artificial prosthetics or bones, aerospace components, titanium components, oil and gas mechanical components, military products, etc.
3. Classification according to processing procedures
Machining centers can be divided into two types: boring and milling and turning and milling according to the processing procedures.
CNC boring and milling machining center is a physical performance testing instrument used in the field of mechanical engineering. It can process workpieces of different shapes. Through the rotation of the worktable, it can realize multi-face drilling, boring, calibration, plane milling, inclined plane milling, and milling at one time through the rotation of the worktable. Grooving, tapping and other processes. CNC turning and milling machining center is a turning and milling machining center is an instrument used in the field of mechanical engineering, which was opened on October 10, 2008. Main functions: programming and processing of complex parts of rotary bodies; processing and trial production of high-precision parts; processing schemes and process optimization, etc.
4. Classify according to the number of workbenches
Machining centers can be divided into three categories according to the number of worktables, namely, single-workbench machining centers with only one workbench, double-workbench machining centers with two workbenches, and multiple workbenches with more than or equal to 3 workbenches. Taiwan processing center;
5. Classify according to the tool change method of the tool magazine
According to the tool change method, it can be divided into the robot tool change method, the direct tool change method and the brick tower head change method:
1- Manipulator tool change method.
The tool magazine with the manipulator tool change structure often uses a disc-type tool magazine. When changing the tool, the manipulator grabs the tool, selects the tool and changes the tool. Responsible for transferring tools between the tool magazine and the spindle of the CNC machining center, sending the replaced CNC tools back to the tool magazine, and then pushing the tools to be used to the spindle.
2-Direct tool change method.
This method mainly means that the tool change process is completed by the cooperation of the tool magazine and the spindle box. The tool magazine configured in this case is generally a bamboo hat type. The tool change speed of the direct tool change method is slow and the failure rate is high, which is generally only used on early models;
3-Turret head tool change method.
The turret head is a tool change method that moves the required tool to the corresponding position through the rotation of the turret. Generally, the tool is changed sequentially. Some things have a compact structure and a very short tool change time. It is generally used in the processing of complex processes such as crankshafts and other slender workpieces that need to complete multiple processes.
6. Classification according to machining accuracy
According to the machining accuracy of the machining center, it can be divided into three categories, which are ordinary precision machining center, high precision machining center and precision machining center. The resolution of ordinary precision machining centers is 1 μm, the maximum feed speed is 15-25m/min, and the positioning accuracy is about 10 μm; the resolution of high-precision machining centers is 0.1 μm, the maximum feed speed is 15-100m/min, The accuracy is about 2μm. Between 2-10μm, generally ±5μm, it is called a precision machining center.
The above is the editor's understanding of the types of CNC machining centers. Welcome to contact us for more information about CNC machining.